Tutto quello che fai su Internet da Tails passa attraverso la rete Tor.

Tor critta e rende anonima la tua connessione facendola passare attraverso 3 relay. I relay di Tor sono server gestiti da diverse persone e organizzazioni in tutto il mondo.

A Tor connection goes through 3 relays with the last one establishing the actual connection to the final destination

Non puoi accedere a Internet da Tails finché non sei connesso a Tor. Per esempio, Tor Browser visualizza il messaggio di errore Server Proxy rifiuta le connessioni finché non sei connesso a Tor.

Per connetterti alla rete Tor:

  1. Collegarsi a una rete locale, cablata, Wi-Fi o mobile.

  2. L'assistente Tor Connection appare per aiutarti a connetterti alla rete Tor.

  3. Scegli se vuoi:

    • Connettiti a Tor automaticamente

    • Nascondi alla tua rete locale che ti stai connettendo a Tor

Le implicazioni di entrambi i metodi nel dettaglio di seguito.

Relè e ponti Tor

Relè Tor pubblici

Quasi sempre, la tua rete locale non blocca l'accesso alla rete Tor e si può usare un relay pubblico come primo relay Tor

L'utilizzo di un relay Tor pubblico come primo relay Tor rende chiaro alla tua rete locale che ti stai connettendo a Tor, pur mantenendo la tua attività online sicura e anonima.

  • Tor bridges

    I ponti Tor sono relè Tor segreti che mantengono la tua connessione alla rete Tor nascosta.

Usa un bridge come primo relay Tor se la connessione a Tor è bloccata o se usare Tor potrebbe sembrare sospetto a qualcuno che monitora la tua connessione Internet.

La tecnologia utilizzata dai ponti Tor è progettata per aggirare la censura dove le connessioni a Tor sono bloccate, ad esempio in alcuni paesi con una pesante censura, da alcune reti pubbliche o da alcuni controlli parentali.

It does so by camouflaging your connection so it cannot be recognized as a connection to Tor. As a consequence, the same technology can be used to hide that you are using Tor if it could look suspicious to someone who monitors your Internet connection.

Tor bridges are often less reliable and slower than public Tor relays.

Connecting to Tor automatically

We recommend connecting to Tor automatically if you are on a public Wi-Fi network or if many people in your country use Tor to circumvent censorship.

When you choose this option, Tails tries different ways of connecting to Tor until it succeeds:

  1. Tails tries to connect to Tor directly using public relays, without using bridges.

  2. Tails tries to connect to Tor using one of the default bridges, already included in Tails, if connecting using public relays fails.

  3. Tails asks you to configure a custom bridge, if connecting using the default bridges fails.

Someone monitoring your Internet connection could identify these attempts as coming from a Tails user.

If connecting to Tor automatically fails, the Tor Connection assistant helps you:

In the future, Tails will also automatically:

  • Detect if you have to sign in to the local network using a captive portal (#5785)

Hiding to your local network that you are connecting to Tor

You might need to go unnoticed if using Tor could look suspicious to someone who monitors your Internet connection.

When you choose this option, Tails will only connect to Tor after you configure a Tor bridge. Bridges are secret Tor relays that hide that you are connecting to Tor.

It is impossible to hide to the websites that you visit that you are using Tor, because the list of exit nodes of the Tor network is public.

Our team is doing its best to help you connect to Tor using the most discrete types of Tor bridges. That is why, when you decide to hide that you are connecting to Tor:

  • Default bridges are not available.

    You will have to know the address of a custom bridge.

    To request custom bridges, you can either:

    1. Request bridges on https://bridges.torproject.org/.

      We recommend doing so before starting Tails and ideally from a different local network than the one on which you want to hide that you are using Tor.

    2. Send an empty email to bridges@torproject.org from a Gmail or Riseup email address.

      Sending such an email, from your phone for example, does not reveal to your local network that you are trying to connect to Tor.

  • You can only use the types of bridges that our team considers discrete enough.

    Currently in Tails, only obfs4 bridges hide that you are using Tor.

  • To save the last Tor bridge that connected to Tor successfully, turn on the Tor Bridge feature of the Persistent Storage.

In the future, we will make it easier to use custom bridges by:

Risoluzione dei problemi dei ponti Tor

If connecting to Tor using a custom bridge fails, the Tor Connection assistant helps you:

The computer clock is set to an incorrect time zone

For Tor bridges to work, the clock of your computer must be correct.

Choose Fix Clock in the error screen of the Tor Connection assistant to set the time zone and time of your computer.

You did not enter the bridge correctly

An obfs4 bridge looks like:

obfs4 1.2.3.4:1234 B0E566C9031657EA7ED3FC9D248E8AC4F37635A4 cert=OYWq67L7MDApdJCctUAF7rX8LHvMxvIBPHOoAp0+YXzlQdsxhw6EapaMNwbbGICkpY8CPQ iat-mode=0

You need to enter the entire line, not just the IP address and port combination.

The bridge is no longer operational

It is possible that the bridge that you entered is no longer working.

Try entering another bridge or requesting other bridges.

Viewing the status of Tor

The status of Tor appears as an onion icon in the notification area:

  • Onion icon You are connected to Tor.

  • Onion icon that is crossed
out You are not connected to Tor.