Starten Sie unter Debian, Ubuntu oder Linux Mint.

Verifizieren Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails

If you already certified the Tails signing key with your own key, you can skip this step and start downloading and verifying the USB image.

In this step, you will download and verify the Tails signing key which is the OpenPGP key that is used to cryptographically sign the Tails USB image.

Um diesen Anweisungen folgen zu können, brauchen Sie Ihren eigenen OpenPGP-Schlüssel.

Um zu lernen, wie Sie sich einen OpenPGP-Schlüssel erstellen, sehen Sie auf OpenPGP-Schlüssel verwalten von Riseup nach.

Diese Methode zur Verifizierung benutzt das OpenPGP Web of Trust und die von offiziellen Debian-Entwicklern und Debian-Entwicklerinnen vorgenommenen Zertifizierungen des Signaturschlüssels von Tails. Erfahren Sie mehr über das OpenPGP Web of Trust.

  1. Importieren Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails in Ihren GnuPG-Schlüsselbund:

    wget https://tails.boum.org/tails-signing.key
    gpg --import < tails-signing.key
    
  2. Installieren Sie den Debian Schlüsselbund. Er enthält die OpenPGP-Schlüssel aller Entwickler und Entwicklerinnen von Debian:

    sudo apt install debian-keyring
    
  3. Import the OpenPGP key of Chris Lamb, a former Debian Project Leader, from the Debian keyring into your keyring:

    gpg --keyring=/usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg --export chris@chris-lamb.co.uk | gpg --import
    
  4. Verifizieren Sie die Zertifizierungen, die den Tails-Signaturschlüssel zertifizieren:

    gpg --keyid-format 0xlong --check-sigs A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
    

    Halten Sie in der Ausgabe dieses Befehls nach folgender Zeile Ausschau:

    sig!         0x1E953E27D4311E58 2020-03-19  Chris Lamb <chris@chris-lamb.co.uk>
    

    Here, sig!, with an exclamation mark, means that Chris Lamb verified and certified the Tails signing key with his key.

    Es ist auch möglich, von anderen Personen durchgeführte Zertifizierungen zu verifizieren. Namen und E-Mail-Adressen erscheinen in der Liste der Zertifizierung, wenn Sie deren Schlüssel in Ihrem Schlüsselbund haben.

    Falls die Verifizierung der Zertifizierung fehlschlägt, haben Sie möglicherweise eine bösartige Variante des Signaturschlüssels von Tails heruntergeladen oder unsere Anweisungen sind vielleicht nicht mehr aktuell sein. Bitte treten Sie in Kontakt mit uns.

    Die Zeile 175 signatures not checked due to missing keys oder ähnlich bezieht sich auf die Zertifizierungen (auch Signaturen gennant), die durch andere Schlüssel erstellt wurden und sich nicht in Ihrem Schlüsselbund befinden. Dies ist kein Problem.

  5. Zertifizieren Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails mit Ihrem eigenen Schlüssel:

    gpg --lsign-key A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
    

Download and verify the USB image

In this step, you will download the latest Tails USB image and verify it using the Tails signing key.

  1. Download the USB image:

    wget --continue http://dl.amnesia.boum.org/tails/stable/tails-amd64-4.13/tails-amd64-4.13.img

  2. Download the signature of the USB image:

    wget https://tails.boum.org/torrents/files/tails-amd64-4.13.img.sig

  3. Verify that the USB image is signed by the Tails signing key:

    TZ=UTC gpg --no-options --keyid-format long --verify tails-amd64-4.13.img.sig tails-amd64-4.13.img

    Die Ausgabe des Befehls sollte folgendermaßen sein:

    gpg: Signature made 2020-11-16T12:22:17 UTC
    gpg:                using RSA key 05469FB85EAD6589B43D41D3D21DAD38AF281C0B
    gpg: Good signature from "Tails developers (offline long-term identity key) <tails@boum.org>" [full]
    gpg:                 aka "Tails developers <tails@boum.org>" [full]

    Stellen Sie in der Ausgabe sicher, dass:

    • Das Datum der Signatur das gleiche ist.
    • Die Signatur als Good signature markiert ist, da Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails mit Ihrem eigenen Schlüssel zertifiziert haben.

Install Tails using dd

  1. Make sure that the USB stick on which you want to install Tails is unplugged.

  2. Führen Sie folgenden Befehl aus:

    ls -1 /dev/sd?

    It returns a list of the storage devices on the system. For example:

    /dev/sda

  3. Plug in the USB stick on which you want to install Tails.

    All the data on this USB stick will be lost.

  4. Führen Sie den Befehl erneut aus:

    ls -1 /dev/sd?

    Your USB stick appears as a new device in the list.

    /dev/sda /dev/sdb

  5. Take note of the device name of your USB stick.

    In this example, the device name of the USB stick is /dev/sdb. Yours might be different.

    If you are unsure about the device name, you should stop proceeding or you risk overwriting any hard disk on the system.

  6. Execute the following commands to copy the USB image that you downloaded earlier to the USB stick.

    Replace:

    • tails.img with the path to the USB image

    • device with the device name found in step 5

    dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M oflag=direct status=progress

    You should get something like this:

    dd if=/home/user/tails-amd64-3.12.img of=/dev/sdb bs=16M oflag=direct status=progress

    If no error message is returned, Tails is being copied on the USB stick. The copy takes some time, generally a few minutes.

    If you get a Permission denied error, try adding sudo at the beginning of the command:

    sudo dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M oflag=direct status=progress

    The installation is complete after the command prompt reappears.

Tails USB stick

Congratulations, you have installed Tails on your USB stick!

You will now restart your computer on this USB stick. It can be a bit complicated, so good luck! But it might not work on your Mac model, so good luck!

If you are already in Tails, go directly to step 3: Verify that the other Tails is up-to-date.

Öffnen Sie diese Anweisungen auf einem anderen Gerät

Im nächsten Schritt werden Sie den Computer herunterfahren. Um später die restlichen Anweisungen befolgen zu können, empfehlen wir entweder:

  • Diese Seite auf Ihrem Smartphone, Tablet oder einem anderen Computer (empfohlen) zu öffnen.

  • Die restlichen Anweisungen auszudrucken.

  • Die URL dieser Seite aufzuschreiben, damit Sie später wiederkommen können:

    https://tails.boum.org/install/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/win/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/expert/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/linux/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/tails?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/win?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/mac?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/linux?back=1

Restart on the intermediary Tails

Restart on the other Tails

Restart on Tails

USB stick plugged on the left Computer restarted on USB stick Computer restarted on USB stick on the left USB stick unplugged on the right and computer restarted on USB stick on the left

Make the computer start on the USB stick

  1. Click on the Start button.

  2. Press and hold the Shift key while you choose Power ▸ Restart.

  3. In the Choose an option screen, choose Use a device.

    If the Choose an option screen does not appear, refer to the instructions on starting Tails using the Boot Menu key.

  4. In the Use a device screen, choose Boot Menu.

    Windows shuts down, the computer restarts, and a Boot Menu appears.

    Plug in your Tails USB stick shortly after choosing Boot Menu and while Windows is shutting down.

    In the future, we We recommend that you only plug in your Tails USB stick while Windows is shutting down. Otherwise, a virus in Windows could infect your Tails USB stick and break its security.

    Such an attack is possible in theory but very unlikely in practice. We don't know of any virus capable of infecting Tails. See our warning on plugging Tails in untrusted systems.

    The Boot Menu is a list of possible devices to start from. The following screenshot is an example of a Boot Menu:

  5. In the Boot Menu, select your USB stick and press Enter.

  6. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen ('GNU GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

Most computers do not start on the Tails USB stick automatically but you can press a Boot Menu key to display a list of possible devices to start from.

If Windows 8 or 10 is also installed on the computer, you can refer instead to the instructions on starting Tails from Windows 8 or 10. Starting Tails from Windows is easier than using the Boot Menu key.

The following screenshot is an example of a Boot Menu:

This animation summarizes how to use the Boot Menu key to start on the USB stick:

The following instructions explain in detail how to use the Boot Menu key to start on the USB stick:

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Shut down the computer and plug in the Tails USB stick.

    Shut down the computer.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install upgrade from.

    Unplug your Tails USB stick while leaving the intermediary USB stick plugged in.

  2. Identify the possible Boot Menu keys for the computer depending on the computer manufacturer in the following list:

    ManufacturerKey
    AcerEsc, F12, F9
    AppleOption
    AsusEsc, F8
    ClevoF7
    DellF12
    FujitsuF12, Esc
    HPF9, Esc
    HuaweiF12
    IntelF10
    LenovoF12, Novo, F8, F10
    MSIF11
    SamsungEsc, F12, F2
    SonyF11, Esc, F10
    ToshibaF12
    others…F12, Esc

    On many computers, a message is displayed very briefly when switching on that also explains how to get to the Boot Menu or edit the BIOS settings.

  3. Switch on the computer and immediately press several times the first possible Boot Menu key identified in step 2.

  4. If the computer starts on another operating system or returns an error message, shut down the computer again and repeat step 3 for all the possible Boot Menu keys identified in step 2.

    If a Boot Menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick and press Enter.

    If the Boot Menu key that works on your computer is a different one than the first in the list, please let us know so we can improve the list. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

  5. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen ('GNU GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install from.

  2. Switch on the computer and immediately press-and-hold the Option key (Alt key) until a list of possible startup disks appears.

    'Option' or 'alt' key in the bottom left of Mac keyboard

  3. Choose the USB stick and press Enter. The USB stick appears as an external hard disk and might be labeled EFI Boot or Windows like in the following screenshot:

    Screen with the logo of an internal hard disk labeled 'Macintosh HD' and an external hard disk labelled 'Windows' (selected)

    If the USB stick does not appear in the list of startup disks:

    1. Make sure that you have verified your download of Tails.
    2. Try installing again on the same USB stick.
    3. Try installing on a different USB stick.
    4. Try using the same USB stick to start on a different computer.

    If your computer still does not display the Boot Loader, it might currently be impossible to start Tails on your computer.

  4. If your Mac displays the following error:

    Security settings do not allow this Mac to use an external startup disk.

    Then you have to change the settings of the Startup Security Utility of your Mac to authorize starting from Tails.

    To open Startup Security Utility:

    1. Turn on your Mac, then press and hold Command(⌘)+R immediately after you see the Apple logo. Your Mac starts up from macOS Recovery.

    2. When you see the macOS Utilities window, choose Utilities ▸ Startup Security Utility from the menu bar.

    3. When you are asked to authenticate, click Enter macOS Password, then choose an administrator account and enter its password.

    Startup Security Utility

    In the Startup Security Utility:

    • Choose No Security in the Secure Boot section.

    • Choose Allow booting from external media in the External Boot.

    To still protect your Mac from starting on untrusted external media, you can set a firmware password, available on macOS Mountain Lion or later. A firmware password prevents users who do not have the password from starting up from any media other than the designated startup disk.

    If you forget your firmware password you will require an in-person service appointment with an Apple Store or Apple Authorized Service Provider.

    Read more on Apple Support about:

  5. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen ('GNU GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

Troubleshooting

Starting the computer using a Boot Menu key can be faster than starting the computer on Windows first and then on Tails. We recommend you learn how to start Tails using the Boot Menu key if you use Tails regularly.

Welcome Screen

  1. One to two minutes after the Boot Loader, the Welcome Screen appears.

    Welcome to Tails!

  2. In the Welcome Screen, select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section. Click Start Tails.

  3. Nach 15–30 Sekunden erscheint der Desktop von Tails.

    Tails desktop

Test your Wi-Fi

Problems with Wi-Fi are unfortunately quite common in Tails and Linux in general. To test if your Wi-Fi interface works in Tails:

  1. Open the system menu in the top-right corner:

  2. Choose Wi-Fi Not Connected and then Select Network.

  3. After establishing a connection to a network:

    • If you can already access the Internet, Tor is automatically started.

    • If you need to log in to a captive portal before being granted access to the Internet, see our documentation about logging in to captive portals.

Wenn Ihre Wi-Fi-Schnittstelle nicht funktioniert, gilt Folgendes:

  • Es gibt keine Wi-Fi-Option im Systemmenü:

  • Die Schnittstelle ist deaktiviert, wenn Sie Tails starten oder Ihren USB-WLAN-Adapter anschließen:

    Benachrichtigung über deaktivierte Netzwerkkarte

    In this case, you can disable MAC spoofing to get your Wi-Fi interface to work in Tails. Disabling MAC spoofing has security implications, so read carefully our documentation about MAC spoofing before doing so.

To connect to the Internet, you can try to:

  • Verwenden Sie nach Möglichkeit ein Ethernet-Kabel anstelle von Wi-Fi. Kabelgebundene Schnittstellen arbeiten viel zuverlässiger als Wi-Fi in Tails.

  • Share the Wi-Fi or mobile data connection of your phone using a USB cable. Sharing a connection this way is called USB tethering.

    See instructions for:

    Tails cannot hide the information that identifies your phone on the network. If you connect your phone to:

    • A Wi-Fi network, then the network will know the MAC address of your phone. This has security implications that are discussed in our documentation on MAC address spoofing. Some phones have a feature to hide the real MAC address of the phone.

    • A mobile data network, then the network will be able to know the identifier of your SIM card (IMSI) and also the serial number of your phone (IMEI).

  • Kaufen Sie einen USB-WLAN-Adapter, der in Tails funktioniert:

    VendorModelSizeSpeedPriceBuy offlineBuy online
    Panda WirelessUltraNano150 Mbit/s$12NoAmazon
    Panda WirelessPAU05Small300 Mbit/s$14NoAmazon

Wenn Sie einen anderen USB-WLAN-Adapter finden, der in Tails funktioniert, lassen Sie es uns bitte wissen. Sie können an sajolida@pimienta.org(private E-Mail) schreiben.

Yay, you managed to start your new Tails on your computer!

If you want to save some of your documents and configuration in an encrypted storage on your new Tails USB stick, follow our instructions until the end. Otherwise, have a look at our final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations.

Create a Persistent Storage (optional)

You can optionally create an encrypted Persistent Storage in the remaining free space on your new Tails USB stick to store any of the following:

  • Persönliche Dateien
  • Einstellungen und Lesezeichen
  • Zusätzliche Software
  • Verschlüsselungsschlüssel

The data in the Persistent Storage:

  • Bleiben über mehrere Arbeitssitzungen hinweg verfügbar.
  • Werden mit einem Passwort Ihrer Wahl verschlüsselt.

The Persistent Storage is not hidden. An attacker in possession of your USB stick can know that there is a Persistent Storage on it. Take into consideration that you can be forced or tricked to give out its passphrase.

It is possible to unlock the Persistent Storage from other operating systems. But, doing so might compromise the security provided by Tails.

For example, image thumbnails might be created and saved by the other operating system. Or, the contents of files might be indexed by the other operating system.

Other operating systems should probably not be trusted to handle sensitive information or leave no trace.

Create the Persistent Storage

  1. Wählen Sie Anwendungen ▸ Tails ▸ Configure persistent volume.

  2. Geben Sie sowohl in dem Textfeld Passphrase als auch Passphrase erneut eingeben eine Passphrase Ihrer Wahl an.

    Wir empfehlen, eine lange Passphrase zu wählen, die aus fünf bis sieben, zufälligen und langen Wörtern besteht. Lernen Sie mehr.

  3. Klicken Sie auf die Schaltfläche Erstellen.

  4. Warten Sie, bis das Erstellen abgeschlossen ist.

  5. The list of features of the Persistent Storage appears. Each feature corresponds to a set of files or settings that can be saved in the Persistent Storage.

    We recommend you to only turn on the Personal Data feature for the time being. You can turn on more features later on according to your needs.

  6. Klicken Sie auf Speichern.

Restart and unlock the Persistent Storage

  1. Shut down the computer and restart on your new Tails USB stick.

  2. In the Welcome Screen:

    Welcome to Tails!

    • Select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section.

    • In the Encrypted Persistent Storage section, enter your passphrase and click Unlock to unlock the Persistent Storage for the current working session.

    • Click Start Tails.

  3. Nach 15–30 Sekunden erscheint der Desktop von Tails.

  4. Sie können nun Ihre persönlichen Dateien und Arbeitsdokumente in dem Ordner Persistent sichern. Um den Ordner Persistent zu öffnen, wählen Sie Orte ▸ Persistent.

Tails USB stick with Persistent Storage

You now have a complete Tails, congrats!

Abschließende Empfehlungen

<img src="../../../lib/dialog-warning.png" width="48" height="48" alt="" class="float-left" />

<p>Tails beschützt Sie nicht vor allem! Werfen Sie einen Blick auf unsere
<a href="../../../doc/about/warning/index.de.html">Warnungen</a>.</p>

<img src="../../../lib/help-browser.png" width="48" height="48" alt="" class="float-left" />

<p>Wenn Sie Probleme haben, benutzen Sie die Schaltfläche <span class="guilabel">Einen
Fehler melden</span> auf dem Desktop von Tails oder besuchen Sie unsere <a href="../../../support/index.de.html">Support-Seiten</a>.</p>

Wir hoffen, dass Sie viel Freude beim Benutzen von Tails haben :)