Start in Debian, Ubuntu, or Linux Mint.

核實 Tails 的簽名金鑰

If you already certified the Tails signing key with your own key, you can skip this step and start downloading and verifying the USB image.

In this step, you will download and verify the Tails signing key which is the OpenPGP key that is used to cryptographically sign the Tails USB image.

依照這些指示,需要有準備自己的 OpenPGP-金鑰。

要了解如何建立自己的 OpenPGP-密鑰,請見 管理 OpenPGP 密鑰 (英文) 版 Riseup

This verification technique uses the OpenPGP Web of Trust and the certification made by official Debian developers on the Tails signing key. Learn more about the OpenPGP Web of Trust.

  1. 把Tails 簽名金鑰滙入到你的GnuPG-金鑰圈中。

    wget https://tails.boum.org/tails-signing.key
    gpg --import < tails-signing.key
    
  2. 安裝 Debian 密鑰錬,其包含了所有 Debian 開發人員的 OpenPGP-密鑰:

    sudo apt install debian-keyring
    
  3. Import the OpenPGP key of Chris Lamb, a former Debian Project Leader, from the Debian keyring into your keyring:

    gpg --keyring=/usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg --export chris@chris-lamb.co.uk | gpg --import
    
  4. 核實 Tails 簽名密鑰所弄的證明:

    gpg --keyid-format 0xlong --check-sigs A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
    

    在此指令的輸出結果中,找到下列這行:

    sig!         0x1E953E27D4311E58 2020-03-19  Chris Lamb <chris@chris-lamb.co.uk>
    

    Here, sig!, with an exclamation mark, means that Chris Lamb verified and certified the Tails signing key with his key.

    也有可能這個核實的證明是其它人所發。 如果你的密鑰圈中有他們的密鑰, 他們的電郵地址會出現在證書列表上。

    如果證書的查核失敗,則可能是 下戴到了一個遭到惡意竄改版本的Tails 簽名或是 我們的安裝指示文件太老舊了。 請 直接聯絡我們.

    這行 175 signatures not checked due to missing keys 或是類似r refers to the certifications (also called signatures) made by other public keys that are not in your keyring. 這不是什麼問題。

  5. 用自己的金鑰來證明 Tails 簽名金鑰。

    gpg --lsign-key A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
    

Download and verify the USB image

In this step, you will download the latest Tails USB image and verify it using the Tails signing key.

  1. Download the USB image:

    wget --continue http://dl.amnesia.boum.org/tails/stable/tails-amd64-4.12/tails-amd64-4.12.img

  2. Download the signature of the USB image:

    wget https://tails.boum.org/torrents/files/tails-amd64-4.12.img.sig

  3. Verify that the USB image is signed by the Tails signing key:

    TZ=UTC gpg --no-options --keyid-format long --verify tails-amd64-4.12.img.sig tails-amd64-4.12.img

    The output of this command should be the following:

    gpg: Signature made Mon 19 Oct 2020 09:54:10 AM UTC
    gpg:                using EDDSA key CD4D4351AFA6933F574A9AFB90B2B4BD7AED235F
    gpg: Good signature from "Tails developers (offline long-term identity key) <tails@boum.org>" [full]
    gpg:                 aka "Tails developers <tails@boum.org>" [full]

    核實這個結果為:

    • 簽名的日期相同。
    • 簽名標記為Good signature ,因為已利用自己的密鑰來認證 Tails 的簽名密鑰。

Install Tails using dd

  1. Make sure that the USB stick on which you want to install Tails is unplugged.

  2. Execute the following command:

    ls -1 /dev/sd?

    It returns a list of the storage devices on the system. For example:

    /dev/sda

  3. Plug in the USB stick on which you want to install Tails.

    All the data on this USB stick will be lost.

  4. Execute again the same command:

    ls -1 /dev/sd?

    Your USB stick appears as a new device in the list.

    /dev/sda /dev/sdb

  5. Take note of the device name of your USB stick.

    In this example, the device name of the USB stick is /dev/sdb. Yours might be different.

    If you are unsure about the device name, you should stop proceeding or you risk overwriting any hard disk on the system.

  6. Execute the following commands to copy the USB image that you downloaded earlier to the USB stick.

    Replace:

    • tails.img with the path to the USB image

    • device with the device name found in step 5

    dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M oflag=direct status=progress

    You should get something like this:

    dd if=/home/user/tails-amd64-3.12.img of=/dev/sdb bs=16M oflag=direct status=progress

    If no error message is returned, Tails is being copied on the USB stick. The copy takes some time, generally a few minutes.

    If you get a Permission denied error, try adding sudo at the beginning of the command:

    sudo dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M oflag=direct status=progress

    The installation is complete after the command prompt reappears.

Tails USB stick

Congratulations, you have installed Tails on your USB stick!

You will now restart your computer on this USB stick. It can be a bit complicated, so good luck! But it might not work on your Mac model, so good luck!

If you are already in Tails, go directly to step 3: Verify that the other Tails is up-to-date.

Open these instructions on another device

在下一個步驟中,必須要關閉電腦。為了能依照以下其餘的指示,我們建議你可以:

  • 利用手機、平板電腦或是另一台電妥腦(推薦)來開啟本頁面。

  • 將其它的指示部份列印到紙上。

  • 記下本頁的網址以便稍後能再回來:

    https://tails.boum.org/install/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/win/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/expert/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/linux/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/tails?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/win?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/mac?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/linux?back=1

Restart on the intermediary Tails

Restart on the other Tails

Restart on Tails

USB stick plugged on the left Computer restarted on USB stick Computer restarted on USB stick on the left USB stick unplugged on the right and computer restarted on USB stick on the left

Make the computer start on the USB stick

  1. Click on the Start button.

  2. Press and hold the Shift key while you choose Power ▸ Restart.

  3. In the Choose an option screen, choose Use a device.

    If the Choose an option screen does not appear, refer to the instructions on starting Tails using the Boot Menu key.

  4. In the Use a device screen, choose Boot Menu.

    Windows shuts down, the computer restarts, and a Boot Menu appears.

    Plug in your Tails USB stick shortly after choosing Boot Menu and while Windows is shutting down.

    In the future, we We recommend that you only plug in your Tails USB stick while Windows is shutting down. Otherwise, a virus in Windows could infect your Tails USB stick and break its security.

    Such an attack is possible in theory but very unlikely in practice. We don't know of any virus capable of infecting Tails. See our warning on plugging Tails in untrusted systems.

    The Boot Menu is a list of possible devices to start from. The following screenshot is an example of a Boot Menu:

  5. In the Boot Menu, select your USB stick and press Enter.

  6. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen ('GNU GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

Most computers do not start on the Tails USB stick automatically but you can press a Boot Menu key to display a list of possible devices to start from.

If Windows 8 or 10 is also installed on the computer, you can refer instead to the instructions on starting Tails from Windows 8 or 10. Starting Tails from Windows is easier than using the Boot Menu key.

The following screenshot is an example of a Boot Menu:

This animation summarizes how to use the Boot Menu key to start on the USB stick:

The following instructions explain in detail how to use the Boot Menu key to start on the USB stick:

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Shut down the computer and plug in the Tails USB stick.

    Shut down the computer.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install upgrade from.

    Unplug your Tails USB stick while leaving the intermediary USB stick plugged in.

  2. Identify the possible Boot Menu keys for the computer depending on the computer manufacturer in the following list:

    ManufacturerKey
    AcerEsc, F12, F9
    AppleOption
    AsusEsc, F8
    ClevoF7
    DellF12
    FujitsuF12, Esc
    HPF9, Esc
    HuaweiF12
    IntelF10
    LenovoF12, Novo, F8, F10
    MSIF11
    SamsungEsc, F12, F2
    SonyF11, Esc, F10
    ToshibaF12
    others…F12, Esc

    On many computers, a message is displayed very briefly when switching on that also explains how to get to the Boot Menu or edit the BIOS settings.

  3. Switch on the computer and immediately press several times the first possible Boot Menu key identified in step 2.

  4. If the computer starts on another operating system or returns an error message, shut down the computer again and repeat step 3 for all the possible Boot Menu keys identified in step 2.

    If a Boot Menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick and press Enter.

    If the Boot Menu key that works on your computer is a different one than the first in the list, please let us know so we can improve the list. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

  5. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen ('GNU GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install from.

  2. Switch on the computer and immediately press-and-hold the Option key (Alt key) until a list of possible startup disks appears.

    'Option' or 'alt' key in the bottom left of Mac keyboard

  3. Choose the USB stick and press Enter. The USB stick appears as an external hard disk and might be labeled EFI Boot or Windows like in the following screenshot:

    Screen with the logo of an internal hard disk labeled 'Macintosh HD' and an external hard disk labelled 'Windows' (selected)

    If the USB stick does not appear in the list of startup disks:

    1. Make sure that you have verified your download of Tails.
    2. Try installing again on the same USB stick.
    3. Try installing on a different USB stick.
    4. Try using the same USB stick to start on a different computer.

    If your computer still does not display the Boot Loader, it might currently be impossible to start Tails on your computer.

  4. If your Mac displays the following error:

    Security settings do not allow this Mac to use an external startup disk.

    Then you have to change the settings of the Startup Security Utility of your Mac to authorize starting from Tails.

    To open Startup Security Utility:

    1. Turn on your Mac, then press and hold Command(⌘)+R immediately after you see the Apple logo. Your Mac starts up from macOS Recovery.

    2. When you see the macOS Utilities window, choose Utilities ▸ Startup Security Utility from the menu bar.

    3. When you are asked to authenticate, click Enter macOS Password, then choose an administrator account and enter its password.

    Startup Security Utility

    In the Startup Security Utility:

    • Choose No Security in the Secure Boot section.

    • Choose Allow booting from external media in the External Boot.

    To still protect your Mac from starting on untrusted external media, you can set a firmware password, available on macOS Mountain Lion or later. A firmware password prevents users who do not have the password from starting up from any media other than the designated startup disk.

    If you forget your firmware password you will require an in-person service appointment with an Apple Store or Apple Authorized Service Provider.

    Read more on Apple Support about:

  5. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen ('GNU GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

Troubleshooting

Starting the computer using a Boot Menu key can be faster than starting the computer on Windows first and then on Tails. We recommend you learn how to start Tails using the Boot Menu key if you use Tails regularly.

Welcome Screen

  1. One to two minutes after the Boot Loader, the Welcome Screen appears.

    Welcome to Tails!

  2. In the Welcome Screen, select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section. Click Start Tails.

  3. After 15–30 seconds, the Tails desktop appears.

    Tails desktop

Test your Wi-Fi

Problems with Wi-Fi are unfortunately quite common in Tails and Linux in general. To test if your Wi-Fi interface works in Tails:

  1. Open the system menu in the top-right corner:

  2. Choose Wi-Fi Not Connected and then Select Network.

  3. After establishing a connection to a network:

    • If you can already access the Internet, Tor is automatically started.

    • If you need to log in to a captive portal before being granted access to the Internet, see our documentation about logging in to captive portals.

If your Wi-Fi interface is not working, either:

  • There is no Wi-Fi option in the system menu:

  • The interface is disabled when starting Tails or when plugging in your USB Wi-Fi adapter:

    Notification about network card being disabled

    In this case, you can disable MAC spoofing to get your Wi-Fi interface to work in Tails. Disabling MAC spoofing has security implications, so read carefully our documentation about MAC spoofing before doing so.

To connect to the Internet, you can try to:

  • Use an Ethernet cable instead of Wi-Fi if possible. Wired interfaces work much more reliably than Wi-Fi in Tails.

  • Share the Wi-Fi or mobile data connection of your phone using a USB cable. Sharing a connection this way is called USB tethering.

    See instructions for:

    Tails cannot hide the information that identifies your phone on the network. If you connect your phone to:

    • A Wi-Fi network, then the network will know the MAC address of your phone. This has security implications that are discussed in our documentation on MAC address spoofing. Some phones have a feature to hide the real MAC address of the phone.

    • A mobile data network, then the network will be able to know the identifier of your SIM card (IMSI) and also the serial number of your phone (IMEI).

  • Buy a USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails:

    VendorModelSizeSpeedPriceBuy offlineBuy online
    Panda WirelessUltraNano150 Mbit/s$12NoAmazon
    Panda WirelessPAU05Small300 Mbit/s$14NoAmazon

    If you find another USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails, please let us know. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

Yay, you managed to start your new Tails on your computer!

If you want to save some of your documents and configuration in an encrypted storage on your new Tails USB stick, follow our instructions until the end. Otherwise, have a look at our final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations.

Create a Persistent Storage (optional)

You can optionally create an encrypted Persistent Storage in the remaining free space on your new Tails USB stick to store any of the following:

  • Personal files
  • Some settings
  • Additional software
  • Encryption keys

The data in the Persistent Storage:

  • 在分別的工作期間仍然可以使用。
  • 挑選一個自己的密語進行加密。

The Persistent Storage is not hidden. An attacker in possession of your USB stick can know that there is a Persistent Storage on it. Take into consideration that you can be forced or tricked to give out its passphrase.

It is possible to unlock the Persistent Storage from other operating systems. But, doing so might compromise the security provided by Tails.

For example, image thumbnails might be created and saved by the other operating system. Or, the contents of files might be indexed by the other operating system.

Other operating systems should probably not be trusted to handle sensitive information or leave no trace.

Create the Persistent Storage

  1. 選取 Applications ▸ Tails ▸ Configure persistent volume.

  2. S同時在 PassphraseVerify Passphrase 欄位中指定所挑選的密語。

    建議挑選一個5~7個字隨機組織成的密語。 進一步了解

  3. 點擊創建按鈕。

  4. 等待此創建完成。

  5. The list of features of the Persistent Storage appears. Each feature corresponds to a set of files or settings that can be saved in the Persistent Storage.

    We recommend you to only turn on the Personal Data feature for the time being. You can turn on more features later on according to your needs.

  6. 點擊儲存

Restart and unlock the Persistent Storage

  1. Shut down the computer and restart on your new Tails USB stick.

  2. In the Welcome Screen:

    Welcome to Tails!

    • Language & Region 底下選擇使用的語言和鍵盤設置。

    • In the Encrypted Persistent Storage section, enter your passphrase and click Unlock to unlock the Persistent Storage for the current working session.

    • 點擊 啟動 Tails.

  3. After 15–30 seconds, the Tails desktop appears.

  4. 現在可以將個人檔案和工作文件存放在 永久 目錄下。 要打開 永久 資料夾,請選 Places ▸ Persistent.

Tails USB stick with Persistent Storage

You now have a complete Tails, congrats!

最後建議

Tails 無法事事都保護! 請參考我們的 警告提醒文件.

如果遇到任何問題,利用 Tails 桌面的錯誤回報 啟動器或是造訪我們的 支援 網頁.

希望你喜愛使用 Tails :)